Weather satellites, as their name implies, monitor the weather and climate of the planet. They also see changes in the Earth’s vegetation, sea state, ocean color, and ice fields.
For this study a recent reference period (RP) of 30 years was used (1991-2020). Precipitation data from CHIRPS and PERSIANN were analyzed using big-data scale analysis on > 10,000 satellite images.
The latest satellite technology is used to provide us with an accurate representation of the Earth’s weather and its surrounding atmosphere. The technology is hailed as the most accurate and reliable source of weather data available today.
One of the most important functions is the ability to measure precipitation. The latest satellites are capable of providing accurate estimates of rainfall over large areas of land and sea. These measurements have a myriad of uses from determining rainfall rates, to assessing water levels in the Pacific Ocean. The most useful application is in detecting flash flooding in the urban core of major cities such as Madrid and Barcelona.
Detecting rainfall is no simple feat, and the best way to do it is by using multiple sensors, each of which has its own unique capabilities. For example, the SSM/I and TMI sensors are good for detecting rain from high altitudes while the AMSR-E is a low cost microwave imaging sensor (MICS) that does it over land and sea.
It can also be quite tricky to make sense of the data from these sensors, and so data management is a key component for successful implementation. To aid with this, the most important information is distilled into the most appropriate format and presented to the user via a single data entry page. This allows the user to easily see and digest the important elements without sacrificing the user experience.
The most impressive feat of the newest satcoms is that they are not only accurate, but they are also easy to use and understand. As a result, they have revolutionized the way we monitor the Earth’s weather. Moreover, they have helped to improve the safety and quality of our lives and that of future generations.
Spain is one of the most climatically diverse countries in Europe and its weather varies significantly from area to area. Its coastal regions have a ‘Mediterranean’ climate with long hot summers and mild winters, while central areas have a ‘Continental’ climate. The north of the country, including Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria, have a’maritime’ or ‘Atlantic’ climate which means cooler summers and wetter winters.
Spain gets on average 650mm of rain each year. This is almost double the amount of rain that the UK receives in the same period!
The hottest months of the year are June, July and August when temperatures can easily reach 30c or more in the south of the country. This makes it a great time to visit Spain, especially for those who like to spend a lot of time outside!
However, this heat can also make it very difficult to sleep so you should bring a light duvet and blanket with you. If you are travelling to the north of Spain, expect a much more moderate climate with highs of around 13c and lows of around 3c.
When it comes to temperature records, satellite and surface data both show a consistent warming trend. But the way that they differ is important to understanding how the climate changes.
Scientists use the data that the satellites relay back to the Earth to make multi-day forecasts for the weather and they do so using a process called data assimilation. This enables them to produce an estimate of the current state of the atmosphere and land surface that cannot be produced by in-situ measurements.
As a result, they are able to improve and refine the accuracy of weather forecasts by identifying and remedying deficiencies in Earth system models. This is a vital part of the global climate monitoring and forecasting programme known as Copernicus.
In addition, satellite data can be used to help scientists track climate change, by providing information on atmospheric composition and temperature that is not possible from in-situ measures. It can also be used to help monitor the quality of the forecasts that are made.
Weather satellites are an important source of observations for climate researchers. They can provide information on temperature, wind, cloud cover, and precipitation at a very high resolution. Some of these satellites can also monitor changes in the ocean and vegetation, and are capable of detecting El Nino events.
Weather satellite images are used by meteorologists for short-term forecasts, and can be animated to show the movement of clouds. They are also useful for understanding the development of storms.
For example, the Hurricane Hunter Satellite can measure the wind speed of any point on Earth every 2 1/2 hours. This provides an order of magnitude increase in the number of precise locations where the winds are occurring, and this can help improve weather forecasting especially for high-resolution mesoscale models.
Another way to measure wind is to use radar. This is the most accurate method of measuring wind speed and direction, and is often used for identifying tornadoes.
However, the problem with using radar to detect wind is that it is difficult to determine how much of the wind change is due to a moving cloud or storm. For this reason, other techniques have been developed to track wind, such as optical flow and tracking ozone.
In addition, many satellites are able to collect data on atmospheric dynamics in the upper atmosphere and the lower troposphere. These measurements can be used to predict atmospheric turbulence, convection, and dynamics.
These observations have several advantages: They can be gridded later to form maps, they can provide better spatial coverage for the atmosphere than radar, and they can measure the wind over wide areas in an efficient manner. For these reasons, they are becoming increasingly popular in meteorology.
As a result, there is a large demand for improved observational products, and a need to develop new methods for obtaining wind profiles in the upper atmosphere, in particular in tropical regions. This is because the dynamical behavior of the atmosphere in the tropics is very different from midlatitudes, and there is a lack of the appropriate satellite information (on winds) to achieve the same level of 1-5 day forecast performance that has been achieved for midlatitudes.
Clouds affect the temperature and precipitation levels of the Earth. They are also associated with climate changes and their effects are important for the forecasting of weather. They can play a role in the cooling or heating of the atmosphere and their properties vary considerably between locations.
Satellite observations can provide detailed information on the variations of cloud cover. In addition, they can be used to assess the influence of clouds on the radiative effects. The satellite-derived datasets available since the 1980 s16 offer a global record of total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types that can be used to detect trends. However, these records are not homogeneous and a number of studies have pointed out that they are not representative for the whole globe17-19.
The climatic properties of clouds are not always well known and there are considerable gaps in the knowledge. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in determining the decadal variation of cloudiness in order to better understand how they interact with the climate system and its components. This is a slow process, but one that must continue in parallel with the development and refinement of climate models.
Some of the most interesting aspects of the climatic effects of clouds are their ability to reflect and emit large amounts of light. For instance, a single cloud can absorb almost twice as much of the sun’s energy as it receives from the Earth.
Because of this, clouds can act as a greenhouse gas and have the potential to trigger more extreme weather conditions by trapping heat in the air. This effect is particularly pronounced in the tropics and temperate midlatitude storm zones, where they have been linked to more vigorous storms and higher temperatures.
In contrast, cloudy weather and the frequency and intensity of storms are often related to climatic factors such as wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, topography and sunlight. The climatic effects of clouds are thus dependent on a wide range of variables and can be difficult to determine.
Data from various sources can be used to estimate the trends of cloudiness on different spatial scales6, 7, 8-9, 10. The most commonly used method is to combine observations from various types of surface visual observations and meteorological stations. This method has limitations as it can not be used for all areas and is subject to human biases. It is possible to use a technique that is based on the SWIR (short wave infrared) spectrum, which can penetrate through cloud particles and give more accurate results.