Astarte was an ancient Phoenician goddess of fertility and sexuality who later joined the Egyptian pantheon as one of its deities. Her symbolism includes personifying each year as an unnotched palm branch.
Ra is the sun god who navigates his sun barge across the sky by day and descends into the underworld at night – serving as judge of all who die in ancient Egyptian culture’s Book of the Dead.
Amun was one of the central gods in ancient Egyptian religion. Sometimes associated with Ra and often serving as head of their pantheon, his name means “the hidden one” – meaning omnipresence and considered creator of humans and all things on Earth. Commonly depicted with an image depicting him wearing a ram-head headpiece to signify fertility and virility, Amun also represented wisdom and the sun.
Amun was an important deity of Thebes whose cult expanded throughout Egypt. As one of only three national star deities in Egyptian history, Amun stood out due to not being linked directly with any specific concept – something Christianity’s God, Judaism’s Yahweh or Islam’s Allah cannot achieve.
Another key reason for his success may have been that he could adapt himself to meet the changing needs of Egyptian society in different times and situations, which were varied and shifting throughout history. He wasn’t simply one faceless god with one clear role – rather, his influence could be found everywhere from palaces to tombs!
At Opet festival, Amun would travel from his temple at Karnak to Thebes and Luxor temples of worship dedicated to him. Ramses II constructed one such temple: Deir el-Medina on the western bank of Nile across from Thebes near Valley of Kings; other two such Thebean Triad members included Great Temple at Karnak and Luxor Temple that together formed the center of Amun cult.
Maahes was one of the most powerful gods in ancient Egypt, believed to shield pharaohs from danger in battle while protecting innocent and brave individuals alike. Worshipped at Leontopolis temples each day by keeping and feeding tamed lions for Maahes; worshipped as the patron god for sculptors and craftsmen for creating masterpieces from clay; associated with fertility, sexuality, and war worshipped as one deity – these powerful beliefs made up the entirety of ancient Egyptian beliefs about Gods!
Isis was considered to have invented birth, with close ties to the Nile River’s inundation and flood. She became popular as a funerary goddess known as Lady of Acacia; her statue appeared alongside those of Isis, Nephthys, and Serket in Tutankhamun’s tomb.
Hapy was a protective god who personified Nile silt and was associated with fertility and life. He served on the Great Ennead that decided between Horus and Set in Osiris’ myth, often being known as the “God Who Settles Contendings Between Gods”.
Nefertum was the patron god of perfumed oils, associated with Shemsu the Lion Deity and Onuris the War God. Additionally he guarded the western boundary of the afterlife where souls traveled on their journeys toward paradise in the Field of Reeds – wearing both Upper Egyptian crowns (Atef crown and Atef crown), Ureas solar disk, and often shown with an abundance of lotus flowers representing himself – as symbols.
Khonsu was the deity associated with ancient Egyptian lunar worship and beliefs. He represented fertility, rebirth, protection and pathfinding; represented with an image depicting him with a baboon head as ancient Egyptians considered these animals lunar creatures.
Khonsu was part of the Theban Triad with Amun and Mut, associated with time’s passage; hence his name “Khonsu”, meaning traveller; this may refer to its journey across the sky each night. His cult center could be found at Thebes.
Ancient Egyptians saw the god of sun and moon as a representation of life’s cycle, hence pairing them together as two parts of an inextricable chain. Furthermore, they believed that crescent moon represented this cyclical nature of universe.
Khonsu was widely revered during Greece’s Ptolemaic dynasty (244-204 BC). A well-known tale recounts how Ramesses II’s wife Bentresh sought help from Khonsu when she fell ill back home in modern Syria; one form of Khonsu, Khonsu the Provider agreed to come and heal her; upon arrival a statue of him drove off any evil spirits that may have infested her body.
The Greeks adopted many Egyptian gods, giving them new names and creating numerous additional gods – among which were:
Mandulis was one of Ra’s many servant gods and is often depicted in images as a male lion. He protected both women and children, protecting both divine order and warding off evil forces. Mandulis is from Nubia but closely associated with Horus in Egypt – in some representations depicting Mandulis with human features such as head or arms or flanked by Taweret who symbolized female fertility and childbirth.
Heka is the patron of magic and medicine. According to myth, Heka was present at creation as one of three aspects of Ra; later myths describe Him as part of Latopolis triad of divine power and existence. Additionally Heka was seen as god of healing; hence why doctors were known as Priests of Heka.
Ba-Pef was an Egyptian god of terror who resided in the House of Woe in the afterlife and caused great spiritual pain for its King of Egypt. A Cult was established to appease him and ensure protection. Additionally, this Nubian deity may represent Bastet as they often showed him depicted with cats or lions.
Meskhenet, one of Egypt’s oldest deities, was responsible for childbirth and rebirth. She would accompany people during all aspects of their lives: birth, life and beyond – creating their ka (an aspect of soul) before breathing it into them physically – even being present during judgment in the afterlife!
She was the patron goddess of childbirth and rebirth, serving alongside Ra in his divine attributes. Sometimes depicted as either a cow with horns or woman.
Iabet (also spelt Khebhet or Kehwet) can often be found depicted in New Kingdom tombs and funerary goods as an aid for Ra’s passage through the underworld, much like Kebechet who purified bodies using water from Anubis’ daughter Kebechet. She was believed to purify Ra as well as serve as fertility and rebirth goddess who often appeared alongside Isis, Nephthys and Serket at Amduat rituals alongside their images.
At one time she was one of Egypt’s most beloved deities; however, with Isis’ rise she has since lost some popularity; nonetheless she still holds many followers across Semitic West Asia and some of her characteristics can be found within other goddesses like Hathor.
Nut is another ancient sky goddess incorporated into other gods; she rose from the waters of chaos prior to creation and is often depicted elongated human form with each arm representing one cardinal point in the sky. According to Egyptian mythology, she swallowed up the sun each evening before giving it back out in the morning – much like how Mary cradles her son Jesus!
Imhotep, who built King Djoser’s Step Pyramid during the 4th Dynasty, revered Ptah who was the lead god of Memphis and considered a protector for that city and many aspects of Egypt such as being patron god for builders and craftspeople as well as protector of canopic jars (containing liver and lung tissue ) which acted as canopic equivalent of Hermes.