Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt

goddess and gods of ancient egypt

Egyptians built many temples to worship their gods and goddesses, who provided gifts and pleasures for all Egyptians.

Ancient Egypt’s gods and goddesses lived among trees, lakes, streams, swamps and beyond the Nile River Valley; yet were very close to its people and heard their prayers.


Osiris is the Egyptian god of death and the underworld, as well as being associated with rebirth, civil law and agricultural fertility in ancient Egypt. Additionally, his name was associated with The Nile river’s annual flooding which served to fertilize agricultural production.

He was the founding king of Egypt and is said to have presided over a period of peace and unification during his rule. Subsequent Egyptian rulers sought to emulate him, with their symbols becoming significant parts of their identities.

His cult soon spread throughout Egypt, sometimes joining with local fertility and underworld deities. Osiris’ early depictions often show him in mummiform, often holding a crook and flail of kingship while donning an upper Egyptian crown with two plumes of feathers for decoration.

As Osiris may have originated among herding tribes of the upper Nile valley, his crook and flail may also have been tools used by shepherds; hence scholars believe he may have taken on that form later associated with Horus, their son by Isis and Osiris.

An essential element of Osiris worship was dramatizing his life, death, and rebirth through passion plays that would often be performed during festivals at Abydos – his main cult center.

Osiris was an extremely revered god and often depicted with green skin to represent the fertile Nile soil and regeneration. Both green and black colors symbolise fertility within nature and renewal of life forms on the planet.

He was often associated with the Djed pillar, which symbolized stability and continued power. Raised at certain festivals and ritually set up within some Abydos temples, it served to represent stability and continuity of power.

Egyptians believed Osiris was the Creator and King of their world, responsible for planting vegetation, flooding The Nile River, and providing resurrection of their dead.

Osiris was revered as the King of all gods and men alike. Not merely a god of flight or shape-shifting like many Greek deities, he represented death, resurrection, life cycle cycles and granted all life from Underworld realm.


Sekhmet was one of Ra’s two powerful daughters and sister Ptah’s. She served as patron goddess for artisans and had a temple dedicated to her at Memphis; additionally, she gave birth to Nefertum who became his firstborn son.

She was a goddess with the head of a lion who symbolised war and battle, but also held peaceful values – such as fighting to prevent plagues from devastating Egypt, while acting as an invaluable patron of physicians.

One of her symbols was a sun disk which she frequently carried upon her head as protection against the harsh sand and heat of the desert, and as an emblem to demonstrate her control of it.

Sekhmet employed another symbol that signified her royal status – the uraeus serpent on her forehead – as an indicator of her divine power and protection of humans from harm. This signified the fact that Sekhmet was one of Ra’s powerful Daughters who oversaw heavens and humans from harm.

The uraeus, in its same shape as an Egyptian ankh (life), symbolized power and wealth; this symbol could often be found within their temples of Egyptian Pharaohs.

She was also closely connected to the sun, and Egyptians commonly relied upon it as a guide when traveling. Egyptians believed that its sunrays could reveal all sorts of secrets regarding their future.

As a war god, she was often depicted as a woman with lioness features wearing red dress and carrying sun disk. Additionally, she would sometimes carry papyrus-scepter or wear the Ankh-sign which symbolized her power to bring life with the Nile floods in Egypt.

At times, she could become so powerful that it threatened the very existence of humanity due to deceit by Ra.

During floods, the Nile would sometimes turn red as it was covered with silt that looked like blood, prompting people to drink lots of red wine during festivals that remembered Sekhmet’s fury.

One pharaoh in particular was deeply fascinated with this goddess. To pay his respects to Amenhotep’s Sekhmets at his annual new moon festival worship rituals.


Amunet (also spelled Amaunet or Amonet), also referred to as Amunet or Amonet in Egypt, was one of eight primordial deities worshipped at Hermopolis that predated other gods of ancient Egypt. Her name meant “hidden one”.

She and Amun were believed to be primordial gods who existed prior to the world being formed, hatching an egg from which Ra would come forth as sun god.

Egyptian mythology associated Amunet and Amun with unseen elements such as air and wind, while Atum was considered their creator god who helped them conceive a cosmic egg.

Scholars have unearthed multiple contradictory accounts regarding this incident. Some say Amun himself laid the egg, while others assert Amunet suckled and helped hatch it.

Amunet was part of an ancient Egyptian group called Ogdoad that represented creation and chaos. She often took the form of a woman with snake or frog heads for heads; her feet would often feature heads of jackals instead.

Her most significant cultic location was Thebes, where priests would worship her. Additionally, she played an essential part in royal ceremonies and served as one of pharaohs’ protectors.

At first, Neith was part of an Egyptian family triad involving her husband Amun and son Khonsu; during later dynasties however she became more of a personal deity and often associated with Neith.

She would often be seen sporting the Red Crown, symbolizing Lower Egypt. Additionally, she often held onto her Papyrus Staff which represented primordial waters.

Amunet was also revered as a fertility goddess in ancient Egyptian religion. She was the wife of Amun, the god who is said to possess incredible life-creating powers from non-human sources.

Amunet was also married to Mut, also known as “the Female Hidden One.” Amunet was revered as an ancient Egyptian deity revered as the Goddess of Mystery and Obscurity who also appeared as part of the Underworld cult; though frequently worshiped alongside Amun in Hermopolis and other cities.


Hathor was an immensely revered deity in Ancient Egyptian religion, revered both by Egyptians and pharaohs alike. Her name means “house of Horus,” as she was Horus’ mother – one of the key gods associated with kingship in Egyptian religion.

Hathor was worshipped as the goddess of the sky and associated with both sun and moon, the planets, birth and rebirth in the afterlife, as well as being associated with death and rebirth in her worshippers’ afterlives.

Hathor was another deity who bridged worlds, helping souls transition from Earth life into afterlife. Known for her kindness and generosity, as well as being the goddess of beauty and love.

She was an ancient goddess with long life span who presided over various aspects of nature – sea, fertility, agriculture, climate and sky – including being an exceptional mother and ruler over numerous aspects of society such as weather and the sky.

Some of her characteristics included being the goddess of music, dancing and joy – as well as love. Furthermore, she was known as being the protector of women though men worshiped her too.

Her cult began during Egypt’s predynastic period and she was worshiped at Dendera; over time however, her fame spread throughout Egypt as she was worshiped throughout. Sekhmet considered her an important deity during this time.

During the Fourth Dynasty, she gained supremacy over other goddesses and her cult spread throughout Egypt. Dendera worshiped her, as well as certain Upper Egypt cults such as Memphis and Deir el-Bahari where her influence could be found.

Later on, she was replaced by Isis who assumed Hathor’s role of mother for Horus and took on some of her functions and positions.

Hathor’s exact origins remain uncertain, but it is widely held that she was originally a Semitic goddess from Sinai region who moved into Egypt. She is usually depicted as a woman wearing cow horns on her head in various art forms.

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