Knowledge, learning, erudition, scholarship mean what is known by an individual or by humankind. They also refer to facts or ideas acquired through study, investigation, observation, and experience.
Knowledge makes learning easier, enhancing cognitive processes like problem solving and reasoning. It can also make it more likely that you will remember new information and be able to rely on it later.
Knowledge is information and awareness that exists in the human mind. It can be contrasted with other kinds of information that exist in non-human form such as documents or systems.
KM refers to the systematic management of an organization’s intellectual and knowledge-based assets for the purpose of generating value and meeting tactical and strategic requirements. It involves initiatives, processes and strategies that sustain and enhance the storage, assessment, sharing, refinement, and creation of knowledge.
A basic definition of knowledge is that it’s “information and awareness as it exists in the human mind.” It can include both explicit and tacit knowledge, but both types are distinct from each other.
An example of explicit knowledge is the ability to perform a task or function. An example of tacit knowledge is the ability to design and engineer a product. It can be learned with experience or through study.
Another common KM definition is that knowledge is either explicit or implicit, with explicit knowledge being set out in tangible forms and tacit knowledge being in the minds of individuals. However, this is not the most accurate or useful characterization of knowledge.
Some philosophers argue that it’s difficult to have a broadly agreed-upon definition of knowledge; it may not even be able to be defined at all! That said, a standard definition of knowledge that has widespread agreement is “knowledge that has been broadly agreed upon.”
Many researchers have found that having prior knowledge of a topic makes it easier to learn new material. This is because it’s faster and less stressful to fix new information into your memory when you already know a bit about it.
This is especially true when learning something complex; it’s much faster to solve a problem when you’ve already solved it than to try to solve it again when you don’t have the answer memorized yet.
A related study found that people with more prior knowledge remember more than those without any such background. This was in part because the people with more prior knowledge had a larger working memory and were able to circumvent thinking by storing their knowledge in their memory (Arbuckle, et al., 1990).
In addition, knowledge frees up space in your brain for other things you’re working on; it’s like having a ready supply of things to think about while you’re solving a problem. That’s why algebra students who have memorized the distributive property tend to perform better than those who don’t.
Types of knowledge
There are many types of knowledge, which can range from factual to theoretical and everything in between. However, it is very difficult to come up with a single master list because there are so many debates that span centuries, arguments supersede facts and everyone has their own opinion on what knowledge is and how it works.
The different kinds of knowledge include explicit, tacit, and procedural. All three of these types of knowledge are important for a business, but each type has its own unique benefits and uses.
Explicit knowledge is easy to document and share. This is the kind of information that you want your team to capture as soon as possible. It is also the kind of knowledge that can be used in a knowledge management system.
Tacit knowledge is the kind of information that isn’t easily documented, but can be accessed through experience or context. For example, if you have an employee who has been working in your industry for years, they may know how to prioritize tasks and scale projects efficiently.
In contrast, procedural knowledge is the type of information that employees use to complete routine tasks. This is the kind of information that you don’t want your team to lose when they leave your company.
It’s also the kind of information that doesn’t need to be documented, but could be helpful to other teams in the future. For example, if you have an engineer who has been working on a particular project for several years, they might be able to help out other teams that aren’t as experienced with the same type of problem.
Ideally, you want to have all three types of knowledge available in your organization so that you can save time and keep your team productive. The best way to do this is with a documented KM system that allows you to track and manage all of your team’s knowledge. This is where understanding the different kinds of knowledge comes into play, so that you can create an effective strategy for capturing, managing, and sharing this valuable information within your organization.
Judgment is a legal decision that settles a dispute by determining the rights and obligations of the parties involved. It usually requires monetary compensation, but it can also be non-monetary, such as requiring one party to perform a service.
In the United States, a judgment can be enforced by a variety of mechanisms. The creditor can attach wages or take assets to pay the debt, and in some situations, it can even get a lien placed on real estate or personal property. In New York, the creditor can even get a court order to put a lien on your car and other vehicles.
It’s important to note that while a judgment can cause financial hardship for the person who owes money, it doesn’t have to result in the total destruction of their finances. Often, the creditor can use settlement or bankruptcy to help people recover from their debts and move forward in life.
A judgment is a formal court ruling that sets out the rights and obligations of two parties in a lawsuit. It can be a monetary judgment, which requires payment of money or property transfer to the other party, or it can be a non-monetary judgment, which requires only that the parties agree on the terms of the settlement.
In most countries, a judgment is filed with the court and becomes a public record. It can be used as a reference for lenders or landlords to see when someone has a history of failing to pay their bills, and it can also be used as a basis for determining the amount of rent that a landlord is allowed to charge.
It is important to note that judgments are not always accurate and can be difficult to understand. Sometimes, they can be helpful when it comes to evaluating decisions and making sense of experiences, but they can also lead to unnecessary strain on your mind if you’re not careful. The judging mind can become taxing and overly critical, which leaves you feeling drained and unable to focus on other things. Thankfully, mindfulness offers a way to break free from the judgment cycle and make better decisions.
Justification, in Christian theology and other religions, refers to an act by which God moves a willing person from a state of sin (injustice) to one of grace or righteousness. It has been a key feature of Christian theology and doctrine since Saint Paul asked how a person can become righteous.
Those who hold to traditional internalist views (that is, those who treat beliefs as inferential and forming of belief-formation processes) believe that knowledge is a matter of justification, but there are a number of problems with this account. First, many people who hold a belief with all its attendant reasons in mind will forget those reasons at some point. Second, many people can hold a proposition in a way that is not justified but that is true.
To resolve this issue, some externalists argue that justification depends on whether a person has the sort of law-like connection between a belief and the state of affairs it describes. They treat the person’s internal mental states as irrelevant to justification, while others argue that such internal states can play a role in justification (Bergmann 2006).
For example, some coherentists argue that beliefs that are derived from sense experience, such as a belief that the clock on the wall reads three o’clock, have a higher degree of coherence than beliefs based on inferential means, such as a belief that the clock was stolen by Meg and she had spiked green hair.
These theories, which are called coherentism and foundationalism, have a few key points in common. They all require that justification emerges from a coherent set of beliefs.
They also assume that justification derives from basic beliefs or through reliable belief-forming processes, such as memory and learning. They can also be viewed as externalist because they rely on belief-forming processes outside the mental life of the believer.
The most prominent version of virtue reliabilism is a process-reliability theory that holds that justification is a function of those intellectual traits that enhance reliability, such as truth-conducting abilities or acquired habits (Sosa 1980; 2007). Conclusion: Virtue reliabilism has some problems, however. The most notable is that it fails to explain how a belief’s justification contributes to its likelihood of being known.