Mars, located as the fourth planet from the Sun and an Earthlike planet with two moons, features an atmosphere which is thin compared to Earth and features that resemble impact craters found on both bodies as well as valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps.
Earth also experiences giant dust storms which last for months and cover its entire surface due to the elliptical shape of its orbit.
It is the fourth planet from the sun
Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, has long captivated human imaginations since ancient Rome’s Roman god of war inspired Gustav Holst’s groundbreaking symphony “The Planets.” A smaller than Earth planet with two small moons named Phobos and Deimos orbiting nearby; Mars features a thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide, argon and nitrogen; its surface features numerous impact craters and volcanoes while temperatures below freezing make for an atmospherically cold environment for life to flourish.
Scientists theorize that the Solar System formed about 4.5 billion years ago when an immense cloud of gas and dust collapsed into a spinning disc, where dust stuck together along rings within it to form proto-planets that rotated around their Sun, drawing more dust and gases in through gravity to form new planets like Mars which orbits nearly circularly taking 687 days to go around its Sun once every year.
Planet Mars boasts an earthy red hue due to the abundance of iron oxide in its soil. Its thin atmosphere is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and argon; while its polar ice caps are currently melting away. Subsurface water reserves have also been discovered.
Mariner, Viking and Pathfinder missions sent unmanned space probes to explore Mars. Their photos revealed a landscape which closely resembles Earth, complete with craters, mountains and deserts; its rotational period and seasons also mirror Earth.
Mars is famously known for its dry rocky surface and numerous volcanoes. Furthermore, Valles Marineris Canyon System features deep canyons as deep as those found in Grand Canyon that carved out features like river valley networks and deltas. Evidence of liquid water can be seen through sedimentary rock layers formed in flowing rivers or lakes on Mars.
It is a terrestrial planet
Mars is a terrestrial planet, meaning that its surface consists of solid rock. Its reddish hue comes from iron(III) oxide dust that forms its red hue – earning it the name “The Red Planet.” Mars orbits around our Sun at an average distance of 128,400,000 miles (227,936,640 km). Although Mars does not possess any moons of its own, its terrain includes valleys, mountains, seasons, volcanoes and polar ice caps that might once have supported life on it.
Mars’ surface is scarred by impact craters ranging in width from tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which have left behind long horseshoe-shaped dunes made up of greyish basaltic rock that create long horseshoe-shaped dunes when hit by winds similar to tornadoes. There are also canyons on Mars such as Valles Marineris that span 10 times longer and 50 times deeper than Grand Canyon, plus numerous other canyons including Valles Marineris which is 10 times longer and 50 times deeper still! Mars also plays host to “dust devils”, towering vortices similar to tornadoes which create long horseshoe-shaped dunes when hit by impacts similar to Grand Canyon’s.
Since Mars is so close to Earth, it is the subject of intensive scientific investigation in our Solar System. Human history dates back at least 4,000 years and Galileo recorded his first sighting of it back in 1610. “Mars” has long been used in different cultures as the symbol for masculinity and youth – its name being taken from Roman god of war Mars and used accordingly.
Mars shares many similarities with Earth, yet cannot support life as we know it today. However, its past may have held liquid water; Mars’ polar ice caps contain enough to cover its entire surface if melted down. Like Earth, its axial tilt causes variations in sunlight falling on different areas throughout the year and seasons to emerge – creating fascinating conditions for scientists who study its secrets. Researchers speculate that its climate was much warmer at one time which might have provided the ideal environment for life to evolve on Mars.
It has two moons
Phobos and Deimos, two moons belonging to Mars that receive little recognition, don’t receive much notice. These small bodies resembling asteroids more than moons are composed of carbon-rich rocks covered by ice that orbit close enough around Mars that they cannot be seen without using a telescope.
Both were named for Ares’ twin sons, known to Romans as Mars. As soon as Mars formed, its gravity captured them as well; since they appear similar to asteroids it may have once been part of an asteroid belt before being captured by its pull.
Mars’ surface is heavily cratered and covered in loose rocks, featuring massive volcanic mountains like Olympus Mons, which towers three times taller than Mount Everest. While glaciers once existed on this world, they have since dissipated over time due to climate change. Red dust blanketing its landscape is carried by winds which create complex dunes in crater floors or towering dust devils similar to tornadoes – an effect known as rediscovery.
Mars stands out among terrestrial planets by having an elliptical orbit and seasonal weather patterns, featuring an orbital period of 24.6 hours with its axis tilted at 25.2 degrees; taking 669.6 days for one orbit around the Sun with four distinct seasons.
Mars is an intriguing world to discover, with two moons to add further intrigue. Phobos is nicknamed Fear or Panic while Deimos is often called Terror or Dread. Both moons are among the smallest satellites found within our solar system, orbiting closely with Mars.
Phobos is composed of C-type rock similar to dark carbonaceous chondrite asteroids; therefore its long shape and close proximity make it appear more like asteroids than moons. Because of their constant motion – either whipping around Mars three times every day or spiraling inward – making them difficult to see and easily missed by observers. Deimos takes an additional 30 hours for its orbits around its host planet.
It is very cold
Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, is commonly known as “The Red Planet” due to its red soil that looks similar to rusty iron. Although smaller than Earth with twice as small of a surface area and an orbit period only 24.6 hours shorter, Mars boasts two small moons called Phobos and Deimos which help maintain atmospheric equilibrium on this distant world.
Mars has an extremely colder climate than Earth due to being further away from the Sun and having an atmosphere made up of 95% carbon dioxide – meaning heat loss occurs rapidly, and surface temperatures may even dip as low as -60 degrees Fahrenheit.
Mars is an extremely hostile environment. Its polar caps consisting of carbon dioxide and some water ice fluctuate depending on seasonal changes and can contract and expand in response to them.
These polar caps may be relatively recent additions, since they weren’t present during the early days of our solar system. This is likely because Mars’ orbital tilt, or obliquity, was much different in those early years than what it is now; its seasons will naturally adjust over time with changes to its tilt value.
Mars’ climate can be very harsh due to its very low atmospheric pressure, which allows solar radiation to escape quickly from Earth’s thicker atmosphere and the vast oceans and rivers that serve to cool it down.
Scientists have recently unearthed evidence of liquid water on Mars, such as hematite concretions and deltas that indicate once-extensive river systems. These discoveries indicate the planet once had an inhabitable climate but now has several factors making life on it impossible, including its faraway position from the Sun, an inadequate magnetosphere and lack of tectonic activity.
Although scientists have succeeded in freezing liquid water at very cold temperatures, the same may not apply on Mars due to fluctuating temperatures that often drop below freezing during the day and further decrease overnight.