A spacecraft bus serves as the main structure and support mechanism for satellite payloads, providing power, commanding, telemetry and an appropriate thermal environment.
Spacecraft buses or platforms designed with sophisticated capabilities have enabled the deployment of more powerful communications antennas, high resolution remote sensing/meteorological sensors, and precise navigational payloads.
Structures and Mechanics Subsystem
A spacecraft bus serves as the foundation of any mission and must withstand launch forces as well as any additional loads imposed by maneuvers in orbit.
Structure must also accommodate for the weight and vibrations associated with payload instruments while protecting them from space temperature extremes. Furthermore, support must be given for deployable components like antennae or solar arrays that actuate freely during deployment and removal from their respective locations.
Structures constructed from lightweight composite materials like graphite-epoxy are tailored to suit each mission’s specific requirements, such as strength, rigidity, thermal expansion or distortion tolerance requirements. Fiber orientation and content selections may be tailored according to mission requirements for maximum effectiveness in strength, rigidity, thermal expansion or distortion tolerance. Structural geometry should minimize part count and fastener numbers to optimize manufacturing and assembly efficiencies while modular designs may further boost these efficiencies.
Command and Data Handling Subsystem
The Command and Data Handling Subsystem serves as the “brains” of a spacecraft bus. It receives and interprets commands from ground, as well as scheduling actions among all subsystems for execution. Furthermore, this subsystem gathers and formats housekeeping and mission data ready for transmission downlink.
The C&DH serves as the brain of any satellite, collecting raw data from all sensor systems and acting as a central information hub. Additionally, it sends out telecommands to other spacecraft systems so they may perform specific maneuvers or send housekeeping or fault log data back down to Earth.
C&DH also stores and formats sensor data collected by all onboard sensors and payloads, using that information to monitor and control spacecraft operations. Furthermore, it supplies power and communications links necessary for all other subsystems’ operation, and features redundancy systems that ensure mission reliability should any component malfunction or fail completely. Having multiple backup components ensures spacecraft can recover from such critical events quickly enough to continue its mission successfully.
Electrical Power Subsystem
The Electrical Power Subsystem generates, stores and distributes the energy necessary for all other satellite subsystems and payload to operate smoothly. It consists of solar panels which convert sunlight into electrical current; batteries to store energy during eclipse periods; and power distribution electronics which manage load in order to reduce total system power consumption.
ADCS subsystem acquires data from sensors and executes commands sent from a ground station to control actuators onboard the satellite, following control-law calculations that determine how it moves in orbit and maintains its position.
EPS (Electrical Power Subsystem) is a power generation and distribution module developed specifically for micro/nano/cube satellite platforms. It features solar panel interface, battery charge/discharge regulators and voltage regulators as well as point-of-load supplies with efficient point-of-load supplies. Additionally, an onboard computer performs system functions such as data logging/downlinking on demand to ensure all systems are working as intended as well as quality assurance processes such as code walk-throughs/coverage tests/unit tests.
A spacecraft bus provides satellites with the necessary support infrastructure so they can function. It handles command and data handling; communications and antenna(s); electrical power; propulsion, thermal control, attitude/orbit control guidance/navigation structure truss life support as well as redundancy systems to ensure their overall reliability.
Webb Telescope’s carbon fiber box houses several key systems essential to its operation. The Attitude Control Subsystem detects its orientation in space and maintains a stable orbit; and Electrical Power Subsystem converts sunlight to electricity that powers Science Instrument Payload.
The Command and Data Handling Subsystem includes both the computer “brain” of the spacecraft as well as all electronics that control how information moves between components – this includes sending commands to other subsystems, collecting sensor suite data telemetry, and receiving Science Instrument data.