The Seeds – An Overview of the Plants Life Cycle

plants life cycle

Plants possess an extraordinary capacity to disseminate their seeds across long distances using water, wind or animals as vehicles for this process. When the seeds reach an area with appropriate conditions for them to germinate they will take root and form new stems and roots.

At this stage, plants utilize sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make food for themselves and also grow flowers for pollination and seed production.


Seeds are embryonic forms of plants contained within protective shells. Seeds hold the potential of becoming new plants when environmental conditions are suitable; this process is known as germination. Germination requires oxygen, moisture, temperature control and light levels that meet specific thresholds; in some cases an area known as micropyle is permeable to water to allow germination. Water absorbed by seeds causes it to swell and burst through their seedcoat allowing enzymes to digest stored food within their cotyledons which releases energy essential for further growth.

Dispersal is the next stage in a seed’s life cycle and this is when its true magic starts. Once produced, plants seek ways to disseminate it to an area where it will undergo germination and begin its new journey anew. Nature often plays its part here by way of wind, water currents, animals or humans transporting the seeds where they need to go for this process to happen again. Some plants even feature seed coatings made up of fibres which allow them to glide downwind when released from their parent plant allowing them cover great distances when departing their parent plant so beginning their new lives far from home!

Once a seed lands on the ground and meets its optimal environment for germination, it will sprout into a green shoot that begins growing roots downward and upward simultaneously; this phenomenon is known as radicle growth. When first life appears from under the soil it is known as seedling and once established will produce its own food through photosynthesis.

Seeds are created through sexual reproduction; each seed possesses DNA from both male plant pollen grains and female ovaries of two separate plants, usually flowers of the same species. Pollen grains are produced by stamens of flowers; for fertilisation to occur it must come into contact with part of another flower’s carpel in its same species, whereupon both sperm and egg meet to form one ovule within an ovary, leading to fertilisation – known as fertilization.


Water, wind, animals and other plants help disperse seeds of most plants from their parent plants, with those which find suitable conditions to germinate being known as seedlings. At this early stage of their lives cycle trees are especially vulnerable to damage and disease.

Seedlings must first locate sunlight. Their roots dig down into the soil until they find an area with adequate sunlight, while simultaneously taking up essential moisture from its environment.

Once a seedling finds the sun, it begins to produce its first leaves; these first leaves are known as cotyledons and provide its initial green hue via chlorophyll; chlorophyll is responsible for turning sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into energy in the form of glucose or sugar for use by its host plant. Cotyledons will eventually fall off as it matures into its next stage of life.

As the seedling matures into sapling phase, it will develop thicker roots and longer stems, producing more leaves and branches to make its own food via photosynthesis, as well as flowers (in flowering plants) or fruit that will spread its seeds to continue its lifecycle.

Sapling stage of plant lifecycle represents its peak growth period; however, it’s also its most vulnerable stage due to flooding, drought, frost damage, heat or cold temperatures, disease outbreaks or insects that attack them. Furthermore, they must compete with other plants and animals for resources like water, nutrients and sunlight.


As the seed germinates and becomes a seedling, flower buds begin to emerge. After some time has passed, blooming flowers open and produce pollen for reproduction by plants. When fertilised by pollen or nectar from another source, their fruit develops into fruit that contains seeds which will ultimately produce new plants, starting the cycle over again.

Flowers may be colorful and beautiful, but they also serve an integral purpose in plants. A flower’s petals serve as its outermost parts and often add beauty. Their bright hues or pleasant fragrance attract insects needed for reproduction and keep it looking lovely.

Behind each petals lies parts known as stamens and carpels. Stamens produce tiny grains of pollen which must land on one part of a carpel known as its stigma for fertilization to occur. Next, these pollen grains travel down an invisible tube known as style into an ovary where they combine with female gametes that contain half the chromosomes in order to form seeds in combination with female gametes that contain half their genome. This results in cells being formed that become seeds in future blossoming flowers.

Each seed holds the potential to develop into a fully grown flower, complete with roots, leaves, and stem. Therefore, it’s crucial that seeds can germinate under ideal conditions; otherwise they’ll simply die without ever flowering into anything meaningful. If planted improperly or lacking proper sunlight exposure they won’t ever sprout and will ultimately perish.

Not all reproduction occurs through sexual means – seeds alone cannot produce new plants – plants also reproduce through vegetative reproduction. This involves sending out stems that form roots and branches on either end; from these stems may come small new plants with identical genetic makeup to their parent plant.

Once a seed is planted in soil, it germinates and grows into a seedling which requires lots of water, air and sunlight for its survival. Over time, the seedling produces flowers which produce pollen; once fertilised by pollinators pollen-bearing bees or butterflies, its bloom develops into flowers producing pollen, which in turn produces fruit that contains seeds which may either be used to produce more of its kind or spread across an entirely new area forming new ones.


Seeds contain embryos of new plants with leaves, roots and stems; the process of turning this embryo into an actual mature plant is known as germination. Once planted in soil, germination begins as water, sunlight and carbon dioxide interact to make food through photosynthesis; as the seed sprouts into life it develops stems and roots to take in water and nutrients from belowground, eventually blossoming with flowers for sexual reproduction with other plants.

Once a flower has developed male and female parts (stamens and pistil), it’s ready for reproduction. Pollen grains from one male part to the female part of another flower are carried across, whereupon they meld together into an ovule structure. After fertilization occurs, an ovule develops into a seed while its surrounding ovary wall hardens into fruit or pod-like structures to protect its contents – giving rise to fruit or pod.

Most fruits develop from thickening and swelling of cells in an ovary. When this expansion takes place, it also results in the outer fruit skin being formed; this pericarp may become leathery, fleshy or dry as the fruit develops.

As fruit ripens, it becomes soft and loses its green hue, creating the optimal conditions for delectable flavour. Some fruits can be enjoyed fresh from the tree while most can be purchased fresh, dried, canned or juiced for sale. Ripe fruits tend to be sweet and juicy.

Some fruits have specially-adapted seeds that can be dispersed by animals, the wind or water. Dandelion seeds feature feathery parachutes to catch wind currents; other fruits feature small hooks to attach themselves to passing animals’ fur; they then consume and pass out their fruit seeds in their droppings.

Most plants produce both seeds and asexual reproduction without fertilization, or “asexual propagation”. Asexual reproduction gives rise to new plants with identical genetic material from their parent but without reproducing. Some rhizomes from these asexually produced plants grow into new plants at some distance away from where their parent stood.

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