The Life Cycle of Plants

plants life cycle

Plants grow by taking in moisture and nutrients from their soil environment and using light energy to create food for themselves. Plants also possess leaves, roots and stems for support purposes.

Germination occurs when seeds break free of their outer coating and start growing roots and leaves known as seedlings, eventually reaching maturity to produce flowers and produce more seeds to perpetuate their species.


Seeds are reproductive parts of plants, containing an embryo and food source for its development. Seeds feature a protective coat known as the seed coat which helps keep insects away while also blocking water entry to prevent early germination of its germinated seeds.

Seed Life Cycle

All plants share a similar life cycle of development before reaching maturity and reproducing themselves. This begins as seeds germinating into adult plants.

A seed’s lifecycle begins when it falls to the ground and finds an environment which is warm, moist, sheltered from wind and rain, and safe from strong sunlight rays. Once this happens, its life will start with roots taking hold in order to absorb water and nutrients while its leaves use sunlight as food via photosynthesis – thus setting into motion an amazing journey from seeds to harvestable food!

At each stage of a seed’s life cycle, its proper planting is essential to its success. Some seeds require exposure to cold temperatures before germinating while others only respond to light and heat.

Angiosperms (flowering plants), including angiosperms such as tomatoes and peppers, undergo fertilization when pollen and stigma meet to form seeds. As part of this process, embryo sacs develop within each ovule as well as seed coats from its innermost wall integument forming within it – each contributing towards successful reproduction.

Fertilization is an integral component of seed’s lifecycle, and occurs differently for every species. In angiosperms, for instance, fertilization begins when one egg nucleus divides and joins two male nuclei to form the zygote; later two additional nuclei join forces and fuse into it to form a diploid zygote (containing two copies of each chromosome).

Once fertilization occurs, an embryo sac within an ovule begins its development process, with similar stages for all species; however, genetic differences among them influence how their seeds will look and shape up.

At this stage of development, a seed’s coat swells and then cracks open to reveal its radicle and hypocotyl. The radicle becomes its embryonic root while the hypocotyl penetrates deep into soil in search of moisture and nutrients from it.

Once the radicle and hypocotyl have developed, they elongate into a shoot that extends above ground in search of light – where true leaves, stems and flowers will emerge from.

As shoots grow upward, they develop green colors and sprout. Sprouts take in water, sunlight, and oxygen in order to survive, using these elements for photosynthesis – producing food in return.

Once the sprout has matured into a seedling, it will grow more roots and leaves as it continues to develop further roots and leaves. A seedling could range in size from something as small as a grain of sand to that of a mature tree depending on the seed itself and how it was distributed.

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