Butterfly lifecycle is well known, and one of its most dramatic steps involves breaking open its hard outer covering to reveal brightly-hued scaled wings and flying away to find food and mates for reproduction.
At this sedentary stage known as the pupal stage (also referred to as chrysalis), significant transformation occurs.
At the base of their life cycle lies an egg. Depending on its species, this may be small and round or oval in shape. Female butterflies usually lay many eggs to increase chances of at least some reaching adulthood; also taking great precaution to protect them from predators and other threats.
Eggs contain a special membrane called the vitelline membrane that plays an essential role in embryo development. They’re also covered by a protective outer shell called chorion that serves to shield it against bacteria and other external threats during its journey towards maturity.
Once the butterfly egg hatches, a larva emerges – an insect with characteristics distinct from those of an adult butterfly. As a larva feeds off its plant host for nutrients to grow larger over time. As it does so, its skin tightens up until eventually splitting apart and being shed off — known as molting; this happens several times over its lifespan.
At this stage, the caterpillar stores food for its adult life. Once fully developed, its appearance should start resembling that of an adult butterfly before it transforms into a pupa cocoon for pupation.
Notably, the time it takes a butterfly to progress from egg to adult may differ between species and is known as diapause, whereby certain insects develop more slowly than others.
Once a female butterfly lays her eggs, she needs a place for their larvae to develop and hatch. To do this, she relies on her keen sense of smell – specifically her ability to detect the unique aromas associated with host plant species she wishes to host her larvae on; also recognising leaf shapes and colors by sight; beating on leaf surfaces with her feet can release distinctive plant scents which helps pinpoint exactly which leaf she intends to lay her eggs upon.
Once larvae hatch, they feed on the leaves of their host plant before molting – an event caused by hormones. As they continue to develop and shed their outer skin (molting), an event called instaring occurs – breaking away cuticle from old cuticle before layer of soft skin forms on epidermis underneath; each time this process repeats itself it forms new insects with different body sizes.
At the end of its fourth instar, larvae are ready to pupate. After finding an ideal place – typically under ground or within crevices such as rocks, trees or crevices in crevices – to do so they produce a silk button on their rear prolegs that connects it to its nesting site, producing hormones which cause their legs to expand until finally, after one final molt, they die off completely.
This sedentary phase of metamorphosis, commonly referred to as the pupal stage, occurs within an encasement known as a chrysalis or cocoon. At this time, caterpillars release digestive juices which disassemble and reform their bodies. Furthermore, the chrysalis provides shelter for wings, mouth parts, eyes and genitalia development before finally emerging as adult butterflies.
Now, the caterpillar’s body transforms into pupal skin which is enclosed within a hard chrysalis. At this stage, its mobility has decreased considerably; but sudden movements may still be made to defend against predators. Fourth instar chrysalises often feature camouflaging colors or bright warning colors designed to deter predators; sometimes there may even be an abdominal support girdle to help support its shape.
Once inside a chrysalis, an incredible transformation occurs: old caterpillar cells dismantle and reform into adult butterfly wings – while another will form its body, legs and antennae – creating an adult butterfly!
Pupa stage length may range from days, weeks or even months depending on species and environmental conditions. When eggs are laid during autumn months, some butterflies go into diapause in order to delay winter temperatures as much as possible and extend lifecycle until spring arrives when all this process can resume.
Once the chrysalis is ready, it will open and the adult butterfly emerges (or ecloses). As it pumps blood into its newly formed wings, the adult butterfly may hang upside-down. Once those wings have grown sufficiently to take flight, the butterfly flies away.
If a butterfly mated with a male in its larval or nymphal stages, she will be fertilized by his sperm and begin her search for suitable plant species to lay her eggs upon. Once identified, a potential site can be identified by leaf shape, color, texture and beating feet against leaves to release characteristic odor. If successful, she will lay eggs onto this particular plant species and start her cycle again.
The third stage in a butterfly’s lifecycle is called pupal stage. At this point, all major changes take place; eating ceases and wandering is followed by formation of a chrysalis (also known as a cocoon). Some butterflies stay inside this shell until conditions allow for transformation to take place – providing protection as major transformation occurs within its walls.
As the larva develops, it must shed its skin (also referred to as “molting”) up to four times during its development process. Each time this occurs, an old cuticle – made of tough outer layer composed of chitin and proteins – sheds to expose softer epidermis beneath. With each cuticle shed comes new growth: this process known as apolysis.
At the chrysalis stage, some species of butterfly produce a silk girdle to support their midsection during an inactive period and prevent it from crushing its wings during transformation. After just a few days in its cocoon, an adult butterfly emerges with beautiful scaled wings spread wide – slowly flapping open and closing as blood fills its veins to prepare it for flight.
Adult butterflies consume nectar from flowers using long tube-like tongues. The nutrients found in nectar enable butterflies to fly and reproduce more successfully while using their wings to protect from cold temperatures. In certain species, adult butterflies will lay eggs to restart the life cycle again; each butterfly species has unique appearance and lifecycle needs but all share similar needs – making butterfly watching extremely interesting!
As soon as a butterfly emerges from its chrysalis, it can begin its journey toward food and love. Although its wings initially look wet and crumpled when crawling out, these will quickly straighten themselves out by pumping fluid through their veins; drying and hardening may take two hours or so before taking flight.
As the caterpillar feeds and grows, its skin sheds several times through a process called metamorphosis. Each time it does this, a new caterpillar emerges with slightly altered features; each time its shed skin sheds is called an instar and each instar lasts longer than before – any caterpillar that completes five instars is considered an adult caterpillar.
Once a caterpillar has completed feeding and growing, it forms a pupal skin to protect itself in its next stage. It could be placed beneath leaves, in mud, or underground. Moths often create silken cocoons to provide further protection; butterfly do not spin cocoons so their pupal stage is sometimes called chrysalis instead.
The chrysalis may look inert, but its transformation is immense. Within its walls lie cells from larval stages growing quickly – these will eventually form wings, eyes and other components of an adult body.
Female butterflies preparing to lay their eggs must search for an ideal plant species. Selecting the correct one ensures her offspring have a better chance of surviving; she might test leaf surfaces by beating on them with her feet, which releases characteristic plant scents making it easier for her to identify which plant belongs where.