Human bodies are incredible machines that store all our memories, taking us where we need to go every day.
As well as our sense organs, our body contains an intricate network of blood vessels called arteries and veins which carry oxygenated blood from one part to the next – this would extend over 60,000 miles!
Bones are one of the most remarkable aspects of human anatomy. Consisting of cells, proteins, minerals and vitamins which allow them to grow, transform and repair themselves throughout their lives, bones are truly incredible!
Bones are remarkable resilient structures. Able to withstand enormous force, they outshout steel in terms of sheer strength!
Our body’s 206 bones are composed of connective tissue reinforced with calcium, as well as specialised bone cells. As our needs change, our skeleton constantly adapts and adapts using minerals found within bone to form strong yet functional structures.
Most bones feature a protective outer coating known as the periosteum that acts to ward off injury and breakage, while also housing osteoblasts – cells responsible for producing new bone tissue and helping form mature bone.
Bone is also responsible for storing essential nutrients, like calcium. We get calcium through diet but our bodies also store some in hydroxapatite structures within our bones.
So that the skeleton maintains an adequate concentration of calcium for proper nerve, muscular, and endocrine (hormone) functioning, this method ensures a constant calcium balance within its system.
Bone contains a jelly-like substance known as bone marrow that produces blood cells for circulation around the body and fighting infections, including red and white blood cells.
Did you know that human skin is one of the most incredible features in our bodies? It protects from external influences, stores water and fat reserves, collects sensory data and plays an essential role in immune defense mechanisms.
Your skin has three distinct layers that all serve to provide essential functions: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Each serves a separate function.
The epidermis is the outer layer of skin that acts as a defense mechanism against external threats to your health, such as infections and damage. Keratinocyte cells exist here to defend against infection or damage and help keep skin cells functioning normally.
These cells are constantly being shed and replaced, taking approximately 28 days for them to travel from deep within to the stratum corneum where they become hard and replace any dead cells that shed or die off.
Epidermal melanocytes produce pigment-producing cells called melanin. Melanin provides natural skin color or sun tanning effects.
Skin plays an essential role in maintaining body temperature regulation. When exposed to cold environments, blood vessels in the dermis constrict in order to dissipate heat away from your body.
The hypodermis is the deepest layer of skin, comprised of fatty tissue that provides nutrition to both dermis and epidermis layers, as well as insulation. Additionally, this layer serves as home to sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels.
Human skin is the largest organ and makes up 15 percent of your total weight, providing protection from bacteria, UV rays, injury and disease as well as contributing to touch sensation, preventing blisters and keeping water off your hands.
The nose is an incredible part of our bodies, performing many important functions. It allows air into our lungs while filtering it to remove particles and allergens; warming and moistening it before inhalation; helping us smell and taste foods; as well as giving us smell/taste detection capabilities.
An average adult breathes about 20,000 liters of air each day, keeping their nose busy with about 50,000 breaths a day. Their nasal cavity is lined with a mucous membrane which warms the air as well as produces snot (that sticky substance that traps dust, germs and other particles that could harm their lungs).
Your nose contains small muscles on its exterior that help create facial expressions like sneezing and laughing, as well as flare your nostrils when exhaling air from your nose. These same muscles also play an essential part in flaring nostrils when exhaling air from your lungs.
Your nose has the ability to detect all sorts of smells from within, providing early warning if someone attempts to steal your food or something is on fire! Your olfactory bulb contains millions of smell receptors that send signals directly to your brain when certain odors are detected.
Your nose is one of the primary means of experiencing and sensing the world, making its health extremely essential. Unfortunately, allergies, sinus infections, and nasal congestion are just a few diseases and disorders that may afflict it; but one of the more unusual disorders is anosmia – an uncommon disease which prevents people from being able to smell at all!
Eyes are essential organs that allow us to see, and sit within a bony cavity known as an orbit (eye socket) within the skull.
Human eyes are highly complex sensory organs capable of receiving visual information and translating it to neural signals for transmission to the brain. Furthermore, six muscles attach directly to them for movement: upward, downward, side to side movement and rotating of the eyeballs.
Eyes consist of three main components, the cornea, the iris and the pupil. The cornea acts like a reflective surface that reflects light from its surroundings while the iris is made up of dark muscle tissue that controls how much light enters your eye. Finally, there is the pupil, which changes size depending on whether you are looking at something bright or dim.
At the back of each eye lies a layer of tissue called the retina, which acts similar to camera film in that it contains millions of photosensitive cells as well as nerve pathways connecting it with the brain.
These nerves form part of our visual cortex in the brain, which serves to process and interpret information sent by our eyes. Retina contains different kinds of ganglion cells that register different kinds of visual information like contrast, movement, shape and detail.
Typically, retinal ganglion cells are distributed according to the environment and life requirements of their host organism. Horizon-scanning organisms usually possess vision with lower acuity in the center of their retina while tree-dwellers who require all-round vision typically feature distributions with maximum acuity at the edges.
Human bodies are extraordinary. Each part has an important purpose, like the tongue being used for eating and swallowing liquids.
A person’s tongue is an intricate structure made up of multiple interlacing muscles, glands, mucus membranes, and receptors.
Human tongues typically range in length between 3.1-3.4 inches; some people can even have tongues as long as 3.97 inches according to Guinness World Records.
Taste buds are found within a network of papillae – small projections on the top surface – while serous glands produce some of the fluid found in saliva.
The mouth contains glands called lingual tonsils which provide essential lubrication for protecting teeth from bacteria. They are located at the base of the tongue.
Another intriguing trait of the tongue is its physical flexibility – as a muscle it can move in any direction, making it one of the most adaptable muscle groups in our bodies and making speech and swallowing easier than ever before.
Ankyloglossia affects speech, eating, and swallowing and typically affects adults but may occur at any age. If the frenulum is too short or thick it can prevent the tongue from attaching to the floor of the mouth resulting in speech difficulties as well as eating issues and swallowing issues; this condition is commonly called ankyloglossia and requires surgery if present. It most frequently affects adults but may occur at any point throughout life.