Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook

Spacecraft thermal control systems (TCSs) ensure that a spacecraft remains within temperature limits that are appropriate to its orbit, power demand and operation. Equipment utilized includes radiators, Multi Layer Insulation blankets, two-phase devices such as heat pipes or capillary pumped loops as well as mechanical louvers and thermal switches. These systems channel heat from spacecraft […]

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Apollo 8 Mission Control

On December 24th, Borman, Anders and Lovell fired the third stage’s engines to align for a lunar flyby and make preparations for translunar injection. Capcom Michael Collins gave approval and declared: ‘All clear for translunar injection!” Houston trajectory specialists and computer wizards were overjoyed, knowing their calculations had come out correctly for once! What an

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Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook

Spacecraft equipment must operate within an acceptable temperature range to complete its mission successfully, doing this by either absorbing or rejecting heat from its environment. Hardware available to accomplish this includes multilayer insulation systems to shield equipment from excessive solar and planetary heating, thermal paints and coatings that change optical properties (such as solar absorptance

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Spacecraft Attitude Control

Attitude refers to a spacecraft’s orientation in space. To be effective and precise in its operations, its attitude must be both stabilized and controlled to precisely point its high-gain antenna, conduct experiments aboard, and perform propulsion maneuvers. Given that attitude cannot be directly measured, its estimation must be calculated through sensor readings. Attitude determination systems

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Spacecraft Attitude Dynamics and Control

Spacecraft attitudes must be stabilized and controlled for various reasons: to point toward Earth so the high-gain antenna may work, achieve precise pointing for experiments onboard, or guide their orbital path. This integrated field investigates sensors, actuators, and algorithms which help orient vehicles to meet desired attitude requirements. Kinematics Kinematic equations describe the movement of

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